Own elaboration from various sources
|In a nutshell|
The transmission of diseases through vectors, known as vector-borne diseases (VBD), refers to human diseases caused by bacteria, parasites, or viruses that are transmitted by living organisms. These vectors transmit infections from infected animals to humans or other animals.
VBDs account for more than 17% of all infectious diseases and cause over 700,000 deaths worldwide each year. They can be caused by parasites, bacteria, or viruses. Some examples of vector-borne diseases include:
- Malaria or malaria, which is a parasitic infection transmitted by mosquitoes of the Anopheles genus. It is estimated to cause 219 million cases and over 400,000 deaths annually, with most deaths occurring in children under 5 years of age.
- Dengue, the most common viral infection transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes. Over 3.9 billion people in more than 129 countries are at risk of contracting dengue, with an estimated 96 million symptomatic cases and 40,000 deaths reported each year.
- Other vector-borne viral diseases include chikungunya, Zika, yellow fever, West Nile fever, and Japanese encephalitis, all transmitted by mosquitoes, as well as tick-borne encephalitis.
- Other vector-borne diseases include schistosomiasis, human African trypanosomiasis, leishmaniasis, Chagas disease, and onchocerciasis.
- These diseases primarily affect low development index countries in tropical and subtropical regions.
|Mosquito||Anopheles||Chikungunya, dengue, Rift Valley fever, yellow fever and Zika||–||Lymphatic filariasis|
|Aedes||–||–||Malaria, lymphatic filariasis|
|Culex||Japanese encephalitis, West Nile fever||–||Lymphatic filariasis|
|Aquatic mollusks||–||–||Schistosomiasis (bilharziasis)|
|Fleas||–||Plague (Yersinia pestis)||Tungiasis|
|Lice||–||Typhus, relapsing fever transmitted by lice||–|
|Ticks||Crimean-Congo fever, encephalitis||Lyme disease, borreliosis, rickettsial fever (Q fever, Rocky Mountain fever), tularemia||–|
Chikungunya Cases in Europe
From 2007 to January 2023, the ECDC has recorded the following cases of autochthonous chikungunya in Europe:
Progress in Chikungunya Vaccines
Recent advancements have been made in the development of vaccines against the chikungunya virus:
Valneva’s vaccine is based on an attenuated virus isolated from an outbreak in Réunion in 2006. The vaccine has shown good results in preclinical studies.
The studies conducted in the US have limitations in terms of generalizability to endemic regions. However, the vaccines show potential in controlling outbreaks and protecting against chikungunya.
This vaccine, although effective, has limitations such as restricted use in certain populations and storage requirements. Additional vaccines are needed to cater to all age groups and conditions.
With the impact of climate change on vector habitats, the need for effective prevention tools will continue to grow in the future.
For more information:
References and recommended links:
Chikungunya: A Growing Threat to the Americas
The World Health Organization (WHO) has identified Chikungunya as a significant concern, with outbreaks occurring worldwide. According to a report published by the WHO on December 8, 2022, Chikungunya is a viral disease transmitted by mosquitoes. It causes fever, joint pain, and other debilitating symptoms. The disease has been spreading rapidly, posing a threat to the population of the Americas.
Vector-Borne Diseases: A Widespread Issue
In a separate report released on March 20, 2020, the WHO highlighted the alarming rise of vector-borne diseases. These diseases, including Chikungunya, are transmitted by insects such as mosquitoes and ticks. The report emphasized the need for increased efforts to control and prevent these diseases to protect public health.
10 Vector-Borne Diseases Putting the Americas at Risk
A joint publication by the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) and the WHO identified ten vector-borne diseases that pose a significant risk to the population of the Americas. Chikungunya was listed as one of the diseases with the potential to cause widespread harm. The report called for urgent action to address the growing threat and protect vulnerable communities.
Promising Results from Chikungunya Vaccine Trial
A recent study published in The Lancet on June 12, 2023, showcased the safety and effectiveness of a single-shot live-attenuated Chikungunya vaccine. The double-blind, multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled phase 3 trial demonstrated positive outcomes, providing hope for the prevention and control of Chikungunya. Experts have hailed this development as a potential game-changer in the fight against the disease.
A New Era in Chikungunya Prevention
Another article published in The Lancet on June 12, 2023, discussed the live-attenuated Chikungunya vaccine as a significant advancement in disease prevention. The study highlighted the potential of this vaccine to revolutionize the approach to Chikungunya control and reduce the burden on healthcare systems.
Valneva’s Chikungunya Vaccine Candidate Shows Promise
Valneva, a leading pharmaceutical company, announced on June 13, 2023, the publication of its Chikungunya vaccine candidate’s phase 3 data in The Lancet. The results demonstrated the vaccine’s efficacy and safety, further fueling optimism in the fight against Chikungunya.
Chikungunya: A Global Threat with Historical Roots
A study published in the Journal of Infectious Diseases in 2016 explored the history and spread of Chikungunya. The research traced the origins of the disease in Africa and Asia and its subsequent emergence in new regions, including the Americas, in 2013-2014. Understanding the historical context of Chikungunya is crucial in developing effective strategies to combat its spread.
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